Genesis: Historical researchReference:
Sugaipova R.A., Yanadamov A.M. — Dynamics of the Number of Chechens and Ingush on the Basis of the First General Population Census of 1897. // Genesis: Historical research. – 2023. – № 2. – P. 93 - 99. DOI: 10.25136/2409-868X.2023.2.38925 EDN: IDIJHP URL: https://en.nbpublish.com/library_read_article.php?id=38925
Dynamics of the Number of Chechens and Ingush on the Basis of the First General Population Census of 1897.
Abstract: The subject of the study is the dynamics of the number of Chechen Ingush in the late XIX-early XX century. The source on which the author of the article relies are the materials of the first General Population Census of the Russian Empire in 1897 and the reports of the ataman of the Tersk region for the years 1900-1905. The methodological basis of the research is a set of theoretical and methodological principles and approaches: objectivity and historicism. The relevance of the topic is determined by the fact that the issues of demographic and ethnic development of the North Caucasus have been in the focus of attention of researchers for many years and are of interest not only to historians, but also to representatives of other specialties. The relevance is also determined by the fact that from the end of the XIX century to the present, the ethnic map has undergone certain changes, but at the same time, the area of compact residence of the peoples of the region has remained without significant changes. The materials of the first General Population Census of the Russian Empire are unique, they make up a huge layer of statistical data and their qualified analysis can help in studying many issues related not only to the number and language, but also to the economy. The scientific novelty of the reviewed article is manifested in the introduction into scientific circulation of the reports of the Ataman of the Tersk region for the years 1900-1905 and the analysis of the materials of the first General Population Census of the Russian Empire in 1897. The territorial scope of the study covers the Tersk region. The purpose of the article emerges from the content of the article – to show the dynamics of changes in the number of Chechens and Ingush in the late XIX- early XX century. Based on the materials of the first General Population Census of 1897 and the reports of the Ataman of the Tersk region for 1900-1905, as well as the districts in which Chechens and Ingush lived, the number of urban population, etc. The article is an overview based on the conclusions made earlier by other authors.
Keywords:Demographics, population, Chechens, Ingush, population census, territory, Terskaya oblast, ethnic composition of population, population gain, population loss
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In January 1897, the first general population census of the Russian Empire was conducted. The results of the census were published only in 1905. According to the results of the census of January 28, 1897, 933,936 people lived on the territory of the Tersk region , including those who spoke Chechen, Ingush and Kist languages, as shown in the table.
Table No. 1. Distribution of the population by native language in 1897 .Counties and cities
According to the census data, it can be concluded that 223,347 Chechens of both sexes lived throughout the Terek region, and 47,184 Ingush people of both sexes. A large number of Chechens of both sexes lived in the Grozny district, Ingush in the Sunzha district.
The Terek region occupied 6,675,000 dessiatines (729224.375 km2) of land. Since January 1899, it has been divided into 4 divisions: Pyatigorsk, Mozdok, Kizlyar and Sunzhensky and four districts: Vladikavkaz, Khasav-Yurtovsky, Nalchik and Grozny.
According to the First General Population Census of the Russian Empire in 1897, Khasav-Yurtovsky and Grozny districts were inhabited by: 
Table No.2. Population distribution in Khasav-Yurt and Grozny districts.Name of the province, county, city
The reports of the ataman of the Terek region for 1900 state that since July 1, 1888, on the basis of the Supreme Decree of the Governing Senate of March 21, 1888, and the laws attached thereto, the administrative and police department of the Terek region and the Terek Cossack army and military personnel are under the control of the ataman of the Caucasian Cossack Troops and Commander of the troops of the Caucasian District.
In the same reports, but only since 1905, the Tersk region includes 4 departments: Pyatigorsk, Mozdok, Kizlyar, Sunzhensky and six districts: Vladikavkaz, Khasav-Yurtovsky, Nalchik, Grozny, Vedensky and Nazranovsky.
The reports of the ataman of the Tersk region for 1900-1905 provide data on the population Tersk region. Table 3 shows the total population of two districts: Grozny and Khasav-Yurtovsky.
The ethnographic composition of the population according to the First General Population Census of 1897 is different. Russian Russians made up 33.69% of the total population, including Great Russians-29.04%, Little Russians-4.50%, Belarusians -0.15%. 26.76% of all Russians lived in cities, of which they made up 70.13% of the urban population, 28.31% of the population lived in villages. The local population was 40.20% throughout the Terek region, including Chechen dialects: Chechens - 23.91%, Ingush - 5.05%.
Of the total number of Chechens, 90.56% lived in the Grozny district -8.12%, in Khasav-Yurtovsky 80.25% and 25.60% of the population. Out of 97.94% of all Ingush, 40.06% of the population lived in the Sunzhensky district .
From 1900 to 1905, the ethnographic composition of the population of the Tersk region consisted of residents of different nationalities, they differed in language, religion, customs. A significant part of the population consists of various captives and the people of the Caucasian Highlanders, followed by Russians, nomadic Karonogai and Kalmyks, Armenians, Jews (mountain) and others .
Table No. 4. Total number of Caucasian mountaineers by yearThus, the total increase among Chechens for five years (1900-1905) is 10066 people of both sexes, among Ingush 1168 people of both sexes.
Since the first General Census, the total increase among Chechens was 10976 people of both sexes, and Ingush 3203 people of both sexes.
The article is a review based on the conclusions made earlier by other authors. The main conclusions of the conducted research are that at the time of the population census, 933936 people of both sexes lived in the Tersk region. Of these, 223,347 Chechens are of both sexes, and 47,184 Ingush are of both sexes. A large number of Chechens of both sexes lived in the Grozny district, Ingush in the Sunzha district.