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Genesis: Historical research
Reference:

Dynamics of the Number of Chechens and Ingush on the Basis of the First General Population Census of 1897.

Sugaipova Roza Abybakarovna

Junior Researcher, Complex Research Institute named after K.I. Ibragimov of the Russian Academy of Sciences

364059, Russia, Republic of Chechnya, Grozny, Ladozhskaya str., 17, sq. 9

ms.sugaipova@mail.ru
Yanadamov Aslan Magomedovich

Lecturer of the Department of History, Chechen State Pedagogical University

366000, Russia, Republic of Chechnya, Naursky district, Ulyanovsk village, Shkolnaya str., 1

ms.sugaipova@mail.ru

DOI:

10.25136/2409-868X.2023.2.38925

EDN:

IDIJHP

Received:

10-10-2022


Published:

28-02-2023


Abstract: The subject of the study is the dynamics of the number of Chechen Ingush in the late XIX-early XX century. The source on which the author of the article relies are the materials of the first General Population Census of the Russian Empire in 1897 and the reports of the ataman of the Tersk region for the years 1900-1905. The methodological basis of the research is a set of theoretical and methodological principles and approaches: objectivity and historicism. The relevance of the topic is determined by the fact that the issues of demographic and ethnic development of the North Caucasus have been in the focus of attention of researchers for many years and are of interest not only to historians, but also to representatives of other specialties. The relevance is also determined by the fact that from the end of the XIX century to the present, the ethnic map has undergone certain changes, but at the same time, the area of compact residence of the peoples of the region has remained without significant changes. The materials of the first General Population Census of the Russian Empire are unique, they make up a huge layer of statistical data and their qualified analysis can help in studying many issues related not only to the number and language, but also to the economy. The scientific novelty of the reviewed article is manifested in the introduction into scientific circulation of the reports of the Ataman of the Tersk region for the years 1900-1905 and the analysis of the materials of the first General Population Census of the Russian Empire in 1897. The territorial scope of the study covers the Tersk region. The purpose of the article emerges from the content of the article to show the dynamics of changes in the number of Chechens and Ingush in the late XIX- early XX century. Based on the materials of the first General Population Census of 1897 and the reports of the Ataman of the Tersk region for 1900-1905, as well as the districts in which Chechens and Ingush lived, the number of urban population, etc. The article is an overview based on the conclusions made earlier by other authors.


Keywords:

Demographics, population, Chechens, Ingush, population census, territory, Terskaya oblast, ethnic composition of population, population gain, population loss

This article is automatically translated.

In January 1897, the first general population census of the Russian Empire was conducted. The results of the census were published only in 1905. According to the results of the census of January 28, 1897, 933,936 people lived on the territory of the Tersk region [1], including those who spoke Chechen, Ingush and Kist languages, as shown in the table.

Table No. 1. Distribution of the population by native language in 1897 [2].Counties and cities

Chechen

Ingush

Kistinsky

m

zh

m

zh

m

zh

By region

114 644

108 703

23 767

23417

1

1

In cities

516

210

329

90

-

-

In counties without cities

114 128

108 493

23 438

23327

1

1

Vladikavkaz district

71

22

500

233

-

In Vladikavkaz

63

19

297

81

-

-

In a district without a city

8

3

203

152

-

-

Grozny District

103 667

98 606

75

61

-

1

In the city of Grozny

330

168

3

1

-

-

In a district without a city

103 337

98 438

72

60

-

1

Kizlyar district

546

318

34

7

-

-

In Kizlyar

15

3

7

6

-

-

In a district without a city

531

315

27

1

-

-

Nalchik district

4

-

17

19

-

-

In the settlement of Nalchik

2

-

4

-

-

-

In the district without a settlement

2

-

13

19

-

-

Pyatigorsk district

54

26

17

6

-

-

In Pyatigorsk

3

-

2

-

-

-

In the city of Georgievsk

19

-

5

-

-

-

In Mozdok

2

-

3

1

-

-

In a district without cities

30

26

7

5

-

-

Sunzhensky district

967

939

23 123

23 091

1

-

In the village of Sunzhenskaya

-

-

7

1

-

-

In a district without a village

967

939

23 116

23 090

1

-

Khasav-Yurt district

9 335

8 792

1

-

-

-

In the settlement of Khasav-Yurt

82

20

1

-

-

-

In the district without a settlement

9 253

8 772

-

-

-

-

According to the census data, it can be concluded that 223,347 Chechens of both sexes lived throughout the Terek region, and 47,184 Ingush people of both sexes. A large number of Chechens of both sexes lived in the Grozny district, Ingush in the Sunzha district.

The Terek region occupied 6,675,000 dessiatines (729224.375 km2) of land. Since January 1899, it has been divided into 4 divisions: Pyatigorsk, Mozdok, Kizlyar and Sunzhensky and four districts: Vladikavkaz, Khasav-Yurtovsky, Nalchik and Grozny.

According to the First General Population Census of the Russian Empire in 1897, Khasav-Yurtovsky and Grozny districts were inhabited by: [3]

Table No.2. Population distribution in Khasav-Yurt and Grozny districts.Name of the province, county, city

Area, verst

Paul

Men

Women

Both sexes

The entire Grozny district

7442,4

117888

108147

226035

Grozny district- the city of Grozny

8911

6653

15564

Grozny district without a city

108977

101494

210471

Khasavyurt district-the whole

4676,7

37895

32905

70800

Khasavyurt district-Khasav-Yurt settlement

3481

1831

5312

Khasavyurt district without a city

34414

31074

65488

The reports of the ataman of the Terek region for 1900 state that since July 1, 1888, on the basis of the Supreme Decree of the Governing Senate of March 21, 1888, and the laws attached thereto, the administrative and police department of the Terek region and the Terek Cossack army and military personnel are under the control of the ataman of the Caucasian Cossack Troops and Commander of the troops of the Caucasian District[4].

In the same reports, but only since 1905, the Tersk region includes 4 departments: Pyatigorsk, Mozdok, Kizlyar, Sunzhensky and six districts: Vladikavkaz, Khasav-Yurtovsky, Nalchik, Grozny, Vedensky and Nazranovsky[5].

The reports of the ataman of the Tersk region for 1900-1905 provide data on the population Tersk region. Table 3 shows the total population of two districts: Grozny and Khasav-Yurtovsky.

Districts

1900

1901

1902

1903

1904

1905

Grozny District

193322

196039

197373

199133

201076

105718

Khasav-Yurt district

67622

70635

72490

77482

75525

77404

The ethnographic composition of the population according to the First General Population Census of 1897 is different. Russian Russians made up 33.69% of the total population, including Great Russians-29.04%, Little Russians-4.50%, Belarusians -0.15%. 26.76% of all Russians lived in cities, of which they made up 70.13% of the urban population, 28.31% of the population lived in villages. The local population was 40.20% throughout the Terek region, including Chechen dialects: Chechens - 23.91%, Ingush - 5.05%.

Of the total number of Chechens, 90.56% lived in the Grozny district -8.12%, in Khasav-Yurtovsky 80.25% and 25.60% of the population. Out of 97.94% of all Ingush, 40.06% of the population lived in the Sunzhensky district [6].

From 1900 to 1905, the ethnographic composition of the population of the Tersk region consisted of residents of different nationalities, they differed in language, religion, customs. A significant part of the population consists of various captives and the people of the Caucasian Highlanders, followed by Russians, nomadic Karonogai and Kalmyks, Armenians, Jews (mountain) and others [7].

Table No. 4. Total number of Caucasian mountaineers by yearThus, the total increase among Chechens for five years (1900-1905) is 10066 people of both sexes, among Ingush 1168 people of both sexes.

Since the first General Census, the total increase among Chechens was 10976 people of both sexes, and Ingush 3203 people of both sexes.

The article is a review based on the conclusions made earlier by other authors. The main conclusions of the conducted research are that at the time of the population census, 933936 people of both sexes lived in the Tersk region. Of these, 223,347 Chechens are of both sexes, and 47,184 Ingush are of both sexes. A large number of Chechens of both sexes lived in the Grozny district, Ingush in the Sunzha district.

References
1. February 8, 1860 the Terek region was formed. Complete Collection of Laws of the Russian Empire. Second collection. Volume XXXV. Section 1. 1860, Law No. 35421. https://runivers.ru/bookreader/book9931/#page/9/mode/1up Date of circulation August 1, 2022.
2. The first general census of the population of the Russian Empire in 1897. VOL. LXVIII. Tersky region. 1905. Pp. 84-85.
3. Demoscope. The first general census of the Russian Empire in 1897. Distribution of the population by native language, provinces and regions. Date of circulation: March 31, 2022.http://www.demoscope.ru/weekly/ssp/rus_lan_97.php?reg=200.
4. The report of the Ataman of the Terek region for 1900.
5. The newly formed Vedensky and Nazranovsky districts are not shown in the table, because the distribution of land in these districts was not done due to the complexity of the work of dividing the boundary documents. The report of the ataman of the Terek region for 1905.
6. The first general census of the population of the Russian Empire in 1897 ed. by N.A.Troinitsky. LXVIII. Tersky region.1905 pp. 5-6.
7. Tersky calendar under the editorship of G.A.Vertepov. Issue 10. Vladikavkaz.1900.

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Review of the article "Dynamics of the number of Chechens and Ingush on the basis of the first General Population Census of 1897" The subject of the study is the dynamics of the number of Chechens of Ingush in the late XIXearly XX century. The source on which the author of the article relies are the materials of the first General Population Census of the Russian Empire in 1897 and the reports of the ataman of the Tersk region for the years 1900-1905. The methodological basis of the research is a set of theoretical and methodological principles and approaches: objectivity and historicism. The relevance of the topic is determined by the fact that the issues of demographic and ethnic development of the North Caucasus have remained in the focus of attention of researchers for many years and are still of interest not only to historians, but also to representatives of other specialties. The relevance is also determined by the fact that from the end of the XIX century to the present, the ethnic map has undergone certain changes, but at the same time, the area of compact residence of the peoples of the region has remained unchanged. The materials of the first General Population Census of the Russian Empire are unique, make up a huge layer of statistical data and their qualified analysis can help in studying many issues related not only to the number and language, but also to economics, occupations, etc. The scientific novelty of the reviewed article is manifested in the introduction into scientific circulation of the reports of the Ataman of the Tersk region for 1900-1905 and the analysis of the materials of the first The General Population Census of the Russian Empire in 1897. The territorial scope of the study covers the Tersk region. The purpose of the article emerges from the content of the article to show the dynamics of changes in the number of Chechens and Ingush in the late XIX- early XX century. based on the materials of the first General Population Census of 1897 and the reports of the Ataman of the Tersk region for 1900-1905, as well as the districts in which Chechens and Ingush lived, the number of urban population, etc. The style and structure of the study. The article consists of two parts. In the first part, the author shows the number of Chechens and Ingush (as well as Kistins) in various districts of the Tersk region (based on the census of 1897). Also, these materials on the number according to the reports of the Ataman of the Tersk region, an analysis of this source was carried out. The second part presents the ethnic (tribal) composition of the inhabitants of the Tersk region. In general, the purpose of the article and the tasks set in it deserve attention. There are signs of scientific novelty, the topic is relevant. The presented bibliography shows that the author understands the topic and uses representative sources. The author refers to 7 sources, including the materials of the First General Population Census of the Russian Empire in 1897. Edited by N.A. Troynitsky, materials of the Demoscope on the First General Census and others. The author refers to the Reports of the ataman of the Tersk region (in the bibliography he did not give a correct reference to this source (the report of the Ataman of the Tersk region ...) The author notes that the article is a review and was prepared on the basis of conclusions made by other authors. The author's goal was to show the dynamics of the number of Chechens and Ingush in the late XIX - early XX centuries. based on census materials and reports from the ataman of the Tersk region, to find out in which districts of the region Chechens prevailed and in which Ingush, this topic did not receive due attention in the works of other authors. The author concludes that according to the census, "933936 people of both sexes lived in the Tersk region. Of these, 223,347 Chechens are of both sexes, and 47,184 Ingush are of both sexes." Chechens and Ingush lived in Grozny and Sunzha districts, while the former were more numerous in Grozny, and Ingush in Sunzha. The article will be of interest to both specialists and a wide range of readers interested in the history of the peoples of the North Caucasus. The article is recommended for publication.