Zyuzin K., Valetov T. —
The Role of the Trans-Siberian Railway in Supplying of the Far Eastern Region in 1903-1913: a Comparative Analysis of Foreign Trade and Transport Statistics
// Historical informatics.
– 2022. – № 4.
– P. 1 - 35.
DOI: 10.7256/2585-7797.2022.4.39097 EDN: EBBFWX URL: https://en.nbpublish.com/library_read_article.php?id=39097
The article is devoted to the role of the Trans-Siberian Railway in the freight supplying of the Russian Far East in 1903–1913 (since the commissioning of its last section through Manchuria along the CER). Methodologically, the article is based on a comparison of various sources: customs, port, railway statistics, reports of the Dobrovolny flot (Voluntary Fleet), etc. It is concluded that the sources do generally provide a possibility to conduct a study in the period under review, and it can be based on different tables from the foreign trade yearbooks and railway statistics on transportation to the Ussuri railroad. The statistics are considered in two ways: 1) "import - transportation from Russia" and "by sea - by the railroad". This allows us to draw conclusions about where the goods mainly came from and how they got to the local market. Comparative statistics are built for the most important categories of goods: cereals, sugar, fuel, timber, metals, textile, etc. A comparison of the freight transportation by the railroad and by sea showed that, at least until 1909, the railroad supply was not significant, but began to grow later, when the railway transportation to the region helped to reduce the share of imports, especially in terms of supplying textiles and some categories of metal goods.
Voluntary Fleet, transport statistics, Russian Empire, foreign trade statistics, Far East, Vladivostok, Trans-Siberian Railway, import, Transportation, Manchuria
Geographic information systems and 3D reconstruction
Stepanova I. —
Upper Volga and Upper Podvine as part of the Russian State: General and Special Territorial Organization through the Prism of Geoinformation Technologies
// Historical informatics.
– 2022. – № 4.
– P. 36 - 52.
DOI: 10.7256/2585-7797.2022.4.39315 EDN: UAOEWK URL: https://en.nbpublish.com/library_read_article.php?id=39315
The article discusses the results of the application of geoinformation technologies in the study of the historical geography of the Upper Volga and Upper Podvinya of the late XV – first half of the XVII century. The study included the development of historical GIS of Tver, Toropetsky, Rzhevsky, Novotorzhsky, Belsky counties and the Tver half of Bezhetskaya Pyatina. The main sources are scribal descriptions of the end of the XV - the first half of the XVII century, the assembly material is involved. Localization of toponymy of the XV-XVII centuries was made using sources of the XVIII-XIX centuries. The objectives of the study included the characteristics of the territorial organization of the studied territory of the Late Middle Ages and early Modern times, including the localization of territorial administrative units, borders, roads; characteristics of rural settlement, territorial organization of the peasantry in historical dynamics; identification of the features of the historical geography of land ownership in the region. The result of the use of GIS technologies in historical and geographical research, in addition to web GIS of applied importance, is the characteristic of the territorial-administrative and settlement structure of the region, which has both all-Russian and local features. Among the local features are specific types of territorial organization inherited from the pre–Moscow period - digests and dozens that persisted in the XVI-XVII centuries. in the Upper Podvinye and on the southeastern periphery of the Novgorod land. A dispersed settlement system was characteristic of the Upper Volga region, while a "nest" settlement system was identified in the Podvine region. The different nature of the entry into the Russian state determined the peculiarities of the formation of local land ownership in the studied areas. Archaic features are also evident here (in the preservation of official land ownership in the Mikulinsky camp-county).
Upper Volga, toponimic, landowning, cadastral book, parish, volost', settlement, GIS, historical geography, Upper Western Dvina