Man and CultureReference:
The phenomenon of viability in modern society of the culture of hunters, fishermen and gatherers (on the example of the Essene Yakuts)
Abstract: The subject of the study is the viability of the tradition of hunters and fishermen in modern society in the conditions of the Extreme North. This article substantiates the features of the viability of the Essene Yakuts in the context of the historical development of mechanisms of self-regulation, adaptation and cultural reproduction. The object of the study is the Essene Yakuts living in the village of Essey of the Evenki National District of the Krasnoyarsk Territory. The Essene Yakuts are a unique local group of Yakuts, as they have preserved the Yakut language and self-consciousness in a modern and non-ethnic environment. In the conditions of the Extreme North, the Yakuts of Essey successfully switched to reindeer husbandry, fishing and hunting, hence the difference in the culture of life support from the Yakuts of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). The main conclusions of the study are the identification of mechanisms for countering instability, as a result of which a new stability arises. The Essene Yakuts were able to preserve elements of the traditional culture of the Yakuts, while transforming it under new living conditions. And if in the pre-XXI century the Essenes felt their remoteness, then with the development of the information society, mass media, messengers, they joined the "Yakut world", which contributed to the transformation of the unique culture of the Essenes. A special contribution of the authors to the study of the topic is that personal field materials collected in 2014 in Essey and Tura settlements of the Krasnoyarsk Territory were used. The novelty of the research is the revealed mechanisms for the preservation of traditional culture, as well as previously unpublished field materials.
Keywords: adaptation, archaic community, culture, Essene Yakuts, yakuts, Essene, ecology, hunting, fishing, ethnic group
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