Software systems and computational methodsReference:
Development of an information and software model of a specialized concrete work flow to ensure the continuity of the production cycle.
Abstract: Abstract The subject of the study is the process of automating the calculation of the parameters of the design of the technology of concrete works and the justification of the "standard set" of equipment for the organization of a specialized flow of concreting of a typical floor. The transport-concrete cycle is a synchronized schedule of works of the production cycle for laying concrete mix and the dynamics of the ABS kit movement, ensuring the continuity of concreting, through the use of the selected technological scheme of concreting. It determines the continuity of the technological processes of laying the concrete mixture, based on the requirements of mandatory compliance with the concreting time and reducing the number of technological and organizational interruptions of the parameters of the complex process. Thus, the automation of the presented techniques will significantly facilitate the calculation of the total duration of the construction of the monolithic part of the building and ensure the continuity of work on the construction site The scientific novelty lies in the development of a new information system that will allow calculating organizational and technological parameters. The specialized flow of monolithic concrete works consists of reinforcement, concrete and formwork works taking into account architectural planning, structural and technological factors of the designed buildings and structures. For its successful organization, it is necessary to have a "standard set" of equipment and tooling for the manufacture of reinforcement products, formwork systems and the preparation of commercial concrete mixtures. For a simpler calculation of the total duration of the construction of the monolithic part of the building and uninterrupted operation on the construction site, it was proposed to automate the methods of organization, planning and management of construction.
Keywords: monolith, organizational and technological parameters, concrete works, calendar schedule, matrices, sequence diagram, informative value, autonomy, network graphs, cyclogram
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Space-planning solutions for high-rise buildings are developing in three directions. The main one is singleЦfunctional, for example, an office or a hotel, the second one is twoЦfunctional, for example, with an office on the lower floors and a hotel on the upper floors, the third one is multifunctional. Examples of the latter are relatively rare and in the tallest buildings, the space of which is difficult to fill with a single function. As a rule, high-rise buildings of any spaceЦplanning structure contain elements of open urban infrastructure (shopping and entertainment) in the lower levels, and garages in the underground ones [1,2].††††††††††††††
At the stage of designing buildings and structures, many difficulties arise. This is primarily due to a large number of parameters, the calculation of which, without specialized software, takes a lot of time. There is also an increased risk of an error, which can later even lead to a collapse. It was decided to develop an information system for automating the design process of buildings and structures.
Let's consider several options and methods of approach to this topic.
Many enterprises use CAD systems, but this does not fully solve the problem. Such systems are universal, and each technology in construction is individual, so many secondary but necessary parameters are missing in such systems, and the user is still forced to calculate them manually [3,4,5].
All types of models are used in the organization, planning and management of construction, but the most widely pictorial (graphic): a linear calendar graph, a cyclogram, a network graph in the form of a graph, as well as tabular, for example, matrices .
The linear calendar schedule (Figure 1), proposed at the end of the last century by G. L. Gant, is widely used. On the ordinate axis of this graph, the types of work with their characteristics (volumes, costs, labor intensity, machine capacity, compositions of performers, etc.) are written out in the technological sequence, and on the abscissa axis (after the zone containing the names and characteristics of the types of work) Ц the accepted ordinal or calendar units of time in an amount sufficient to display the entire production period works. Horizontal lines showing the progress and deadlines of each type of work are applied directly to the grid of the calendar schedule. Under the grid of the calendar schedule, the need for performers and their mechanical strength for each unit of time is written out.
Figure 1 Ц Calendar graph in linear form
A flow graph Ц a cyclogram (Figure 2) has become widely used. When constructing a cyclogram, it is taken into account that with the correct organization of work, only one main work can be performed on one particular front at any given time.
Fig. 2 Ц Calendar graph in the form of a cyclogram
The network graph (Figure 3) is an oriented graph, i.e. a network formed by arrows (works and connections or only connections) and circles or rectangles that indicate either the fact of the beginning or end of work, i.e. are events (circles), or reflect not only the beginning and end, but also the work itself (rectangles).[7,8]
Figure 3 Ц Calendar graph in the form of a graph (network graph)
aЦmatrix with initial data;
bЦnetwork graph in the form of "workЦarrow";
bЦa network graph in the form of "work is the vertex of the graph"
Network schedules are quite simple and visual when organizing construction works with a small number of their types and private fronts, but they become more complicated very quickly and lose visibility with an increase in the number of types and fronts of work, yielding in these indicators to a linear calendar schedule and a calendar schedule in the form of a cyclogram.
Thus, consideration of the most characteristic and common forms of calendar schedules shows that each of them has both advantages and disadvantages. The presence of advantages determines the fact of their use, and the presence of disadvantages is a constant search for new, more perfect forms [9,10,11,12].
Searching for a new form of the calendar schedule, free from the disadvantages inherent in the forms under consideration, and including their advantages, a combined form was proposed (Figure 1.6). The combined form of the calendar schedule is based on a linear calendar schedule. However, the display of the main types of work performed directly on private fronts is carried out in the form of a cyclogram, i.e. with the display of the private fronts themselves. At the same time, it provides for the imposition of links between the main and other works. Behind the grid of the calendar schedule, the need for resources is written out for each unit of time and, if necessary, for each private front of work. The need for resources is displayed both in total and by profession (labor resources), by the standard sizes of machines and mechanisms, as well as by the types of necessary structures, parts, semi-finished products and materials (material and technical resources).
The given varieties of calendar schedules make it possible to make their classification (Figure 4), covering the known forms and allowing to construct new ones by varying classification features.
As tabular forms of fixing work organization models, it is necessary first of all to name matrices that can be used as independent forms of fixing models and as forms for preparing source data for any other methods of calculating and fixing models, for example, when developing calendar schedules [13,14,15].
Figure 4 Ц Classification of calendar schedules used in construction
In 1981, in connection with the need to calculate new varieties of in-line methods of organizing work, A.V. Afanasyev proposed the so-called rank matrices in the systems OFRR and OVRR (Figure 5). The specificity of these matrices is the removal of work ranks to the abscissa axis and the fixation of peer-to-peer work in the lineographs either sequentially by type (OVRR system) or sequentially along the fronts (OFRR system).
Figure 5 Ц The shape of matrices in systems
The functional requirements of the information system are displayed using the use case diagram. The diagram provides a description of what the system is able to do and with whom (or what) it will interact [16,17,18,19,20].
In the simulated system, the actor is the user of the software product. The type of relationship is directed association.
Based on the needs of the user, the following options for using the program are highlighted:
Ц formation of the enterprise structure;
Ц waste accounting;
Ц generating reports;
Ц determination of the list of substances of the enterprise.
A diagram of the use cases is shown in Figure 6.
Figure 6 Ц Diagram of use cases
The sequence diagram shows the interaction of objects, ordered by time. It shows the objects and classes used in the script, and the sequence of messages exchanged by the objects to execute the script.
The sequence diagram of the automated system is shown in Fig. 7-9.
Figure 7Ц Sequence diagram of existing buildings
Figure 8 Ц Diagram of the sequence of adding a new building
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† † † † † † † † † † † † † † † Figure 9 Ц Sequence diagram of the ABS motion graph
Thus , we can conclude and result that the information system should provide the ability to perform the following functions:
Ц output of finished buildings;
Ц adding a new building;
Ц calculation of the duration of a specialized stream;
Ц ability to perform editing;
Ц ability to remove a building from the list;
Ц calculation of the hourly ABS movement schedule;
Ц ability to save the report.
Potential consumers are construction organizations that need specialized software for calculations.
Basic user needs:
Ц calculation of the transport and concrete cycle;
Ц calculation of the duration of a specialized stream;
Ц generating reports;
Ц user-friendliness, intuitive interface;
Ц reliability and the ability to save the results of the program;
Ц high speed operation.
Each software must perform certain functions, as well as possess a number of properties that allow it to be used successfully for a long period, i.e. have certain qualities.
Software quality is a set of features and characteristics of software that affect the ability to meet the specified needs of users.
The main criteria for the quality of PS are considered to be:
Ц ease of use;
Functionality is the ability of software to perform a set of functions that meet the specified or implied needs of users. The set of these functions is defined in the external description Ц in the functional specification of the software.
Conclusions on the software.
The developed software has all the necessary functions that will allow automating the design process of buildings and structures that meet the needs of users .
Autonomy. The software works independently of other programs. Additional installation of third-party software is not required.
Stability. The software is fully functional in case of incorrect input data. This is achieved by using data validation for correctness, as well as using exceptional situation handlers responsible for handling situations of incorrect data detection.
Security. It is provided to save all information in case of a computer or software malfunction and download the last save when the software is started.
Ease of use is the characteristics of the software that allow you to minimize the user's efforts to prepare the source data, use the PS and evaluate the results obtained, as well as cause positive emotions of a certain or implied user.
Informative. The names of the input fields and objects are displayed in full and correspond to the names given in the regulatory documents. The program generates a detailed report containing the initial data and calculation results.
Ease of use. The software product is easy to use, has an intuitive interface and a convenient set of functions.
Efficiency is the ratio of the level of services provided by the user under given conditions to the amount of resources used.
Temporary efficiency. Calculations and other operations are performed quickly, in a fraction of a second.
Resource efficiency. The minimum amount of RAM required is 256 MB, the minimum amount of available free space on the hard disk is 100 MB.
Efficiency by device. To work directly with the program, a minimum of peripheral devices is required, in addition to the computer itself. Keyboard and mouse are required as input tools. As a means of output Ц a monitor, the minimum screen resolution is 1024x768 [22,23].
Mobility is the ability to transfer software from one environment to another, in particular, from one computer to another.
Structuring. The software tool is a modular program.
Maintainability is the characteristics of software that allow minimizing efforts to make changes to it to eliminate errors and modify it in accordance with new user needs.
Simplicity of maintenance is provided by the presence of the programmer's manual, the structuring of the program text.
Thus, the automation of the presented techniques will significantly facilitate the calculation of the total duration of the construction of the monolithic part of the building and ensure the continuity of work on the construction site.